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What are the types and differences of lithium batteries?
public date:2022-10-25   clicks:1070

There are many types of lithium batteries according to different materials, uses and specifications. There are mainly two types of lithium metal batteries and lithium ion batteries according to materials. There are three types of lithium batteries according to positive and negative electrode materials, but there are also three types of lithium batteries according to shell materials. Therefore, there are many types of lithium batteries, mainly depending on which type they are classified.

Three classifications of lithium batteries:

1. Lithium manganese

Advantages: low price; Good low-temperature performance, discharge efficiency above 90% at - 20 ℃; Good safety performance.

Disadvantages: poor high-temperature performance; Low cycle life (generally the normal service life is about 300 to 400 times); Low specific capacity (112); Poor rate discharge (for example, the car starts fast uphill, which has a great impact on this type of battery).

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2. Ternary

Advantages: The price is the most expensive of the three materials; Large capacity (150. It can save volume); Good cycle life (600 to 700 times); Good discharge rate.

Disadvantages: the safety performance is the worst among the three (especially with steel shell); At present, the battery industry in China does not have a good grasp of this material and does not use it much.

3. Iron and lithium

Advantages: price; Medium capacity (130); Long cycle life (about 1500 times); High temperature performance.

Disadvantages: the price is not cheap; Poor low-temperature performance; Only in electric vehicles can their superior performance be fully demonstrated.

Lithium batteries are usually classified according to internal materials:

1. Lithium metal battery: The lithium metal battery generally uses manganese dioxide as the positive electrode material, lithium metal or its alloy metal as the negative electrode material, and uses non-aqueous electrolyte solution.

2. Lithium ion battery: lithium alloy metal oxide is generally used as the positive electrode material, graphite as the negative electrode material, and non-aqueous electrolyte.

Classified by positive and negative materials

1. Lithium iron phosphate battery: lithium phosphate has good electrochemical performance and low resistance. The main advantages are high rated current and long cycle life; Good thermal stability, enhanced safety and tolerance to abuse. If it is kept under high voltage for a long time, lithium phosphate system is more resistant to all charging conditions and has less stress than other lithium ion systems.

2. Lithium cobalate battery: its high ratio can make lithium cobalate a popular choice for mobile phones, laptops and digital cameras. The battery consists of cobalt oxide cathode and graphite carbon anode. The cathode has a layered structure. In the discharge process, lithium ions move from the anode to the cathode, while the charging process is reverse flow.

3. Lithium manganate battery: The lithium manganate battery can be discharged under current for 20-30 years, with moderate heat accumulation. It is also possible to apply a load pulse of up to 501 seconds. The continuous high load under this current will lead to heat accumulation, and the battery temperature should not exceed 80 (176). Lithium manganate is used in electric tools, medical devices, hybrid electric vehicles and pure electric vehicles.

Classification by enclosure material:

The first type is the steel case battery. As the name implies, the shell is made of steel.

The second type is aluminum case battery, which is made of aluminum.

The third type is polymer battery. The shell is a kind of polymer material, mostly silver. A few manufacturers make black, and the industry becomes black.

In general, the types of lithium batteries include lithium manganese, ternary, iron and lithium. Other types include lithium metal batteries and lithium ion batteries according to their internal materials. If they are classified by positive and negative materials, they include lithium iron phosphate batteries, lithium cobalate batteries and lithium manganate batteries. Therefore, we must have known about the types and differences of lithium batteries.